Tuesday, March 24, 2020
9 Tips for Handling a Difficult Coworker No matter where you work, there always seems to be at least one coworker who is difficult to deal with. Sometimes, that coworker even turns into a bully, and that can affect your job performance and self-esteem when all you want to do it get along and get the job done. If you let it go, you can end up losing your temper, and that could adversely affect you both personally and professionally. However, there are some ways you can get along or defuse the situation to make life easier on the job. 1. Difficult CoworkersAll work situations have difficult coworkers from health care jobs to sales jobs. It may be the office gossip, the one who never seems to be able to get the job done without help or the serial dodger, who never seems to take responsibility and blames everyone else for his or her shortcomings. Then there is the nasty coworker, who never has anything nice to say about you, no matter what. Your first step in dealing with difficult coworkers is to identify who they are to ensur e you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t blaming the wrong person.2. Discuss the ProblemWith a workplace bully or backstabber, it may be necessary to confront the person instead of letting the behavior continue. Having a calm discussion about the problem may have a surprising response. Some people do not realize the adverse impact their statements and actions have on others and be genuinely surprised and taken aback. Try to talk reasonably and hold your temper, but let the person know that you will take the issue to a superior if the actions continue.3. Talk to a FriendA little unbiased opinion is never harmful, so talking over your coworker situation with a friend can be a good idea. It not only lets you vent your frustrations but can give you an unbiased opinion of what may be going on and how to handle the situation.4. Use Humor to Defuse a SituationWhile this type of tactic can work for some people, not everyone is able to make a humorous comment to defuse a situation spontaneously. A light bit of h umor might be the tactic for you if you have a funny side.5. Have an Exit StrategyHaving an excuse to get away from a difficult coworker can help. Whether inventing a phone call you have to make, work you have to do right away or another excuse, spend as little time with the toxic coworker as possible. When people realize they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t being listened to, they give up.6. Keep Your Co-Worker Problem PrivateYou donÃ¢â¬â¢t want your character questioned, so maintain your cool when faced with a problem co-worker. Complaining to others in the office might get you branded as a problem yourself, so keep any complaining down to those in your family or a close friend outside the office. Going public with grievances is always a bad idea.7. Be Bigger Than Your Co-WorkerYou know the old adage, Ã¢â¬Å"You can attract more flies with honey than with vinegar.Ã¢â¬ This applies to coworkers too. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you have to come in every day with a new joke or be the person who organi zes birthday parties. However, just being pleasant, smiling and polite can improve another personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward you.8. A Friend CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Be an EnemyWhile it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work in all cases, being friendly but not overly friendly to a difficult coworker can produce positive results. If the problem is gossip, having a friendly conversation can set things straight. If, on the other hand, the coworker is trying to take credit for work you have done, you can let your boss know beforehand that you are working on a certain aspect of a project, so you will get the credit.9 Go to Your BossNo one likes to do this, but sometimes there is no other choice if your requests to your toxic coworker have fallen on deaf ears. If you do decide to take the matter up with your supervisor, make sure to go armed with the information you need to make your case. Take notes on how this personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are affecting your work and productivity on projects, and write down exactly what tha t person is doing to adversely affect your work.Whether working in a health care job or another field, there are ways to deal with toxic coworkers to make your job easier. Searching for a job can be easier too. TheJobNetwork lets you enter your job interests and qualifications and does the job search for you. All you have to do is enter your qualifications and interests in employment, and you will receive job alerts via email to choose which jobs interest you. To get started now, sign up with TheJobNetwork.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Pain and Suffering of animals for Humans Sake Right or Wrong essays Pain and Suffering of Animals for Humans Sake: When you go out to eat and look at your thick and juicy T-bone steak what do you think about? When you look at that gorgeous mink coat in the department store what is going through your mind? When you here that cigarette smoke causes cancer in lab animals what is the first thing that comes to mind? Chances are that in each of these cases you were not thinking about how the cow suffered while it was being fattened up, ho painful the trap was that caught those mink, or the conditions those lab animals hat to endure to develop that cancer. Most people do not think about these things. However, in this paper, you will be enlightened on the pain and suffering of animals in three different industries and you will also hear from the other side of this issue. First, one of the biggest culprits of animal suffering is the animal food industry. This is an industry in which people have a tendency to block out or ignore the animal mistreatment; this is done by disassociating oneself with the direct harm and ignoring the indirect harm (Harnack 133). A good start under this example in the case of pigs. Normally, pigs are intelligent animals capable of showing affection. They have very good senses of smell, which is why pigs have been used as hunting animals (Coats 31). This normal behavior is disrupted however in the food industry. Pigs are taken to slaughter at about twenty-four weeks of age when they are approximately 220 pounds (Coats 32). Pigs are usually mass-caged into groups that consist of other pigs of the same sex and age. This can cause excessive aggressiveness in the animals due to the stifling of the natural social orders, which are accomplished though mixing (Coats 33). Due to inactivity in cages, pigs become bored and do things such as gnaw on the bars of the cage or on the body parts of other pigs. Factory owners attempt to remedy this by doing thi...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Why Americans should embrace Alternative fuel vehicles - Term Paper Example If current energy usage patterns continue for a few more decades then the ecosystems and environments across the world would be damaged beyond repair, putting at risk the long-term survival of our species. (Borowitz, 1999, p.255) The rest of this essay will elaborate on these points and present the reasons why Americans should embrace alternative fuel vehicles. Beyond concerns about peak-oil and issues of sustaining conventional oil supplies, there is the danger posed by environmental pollution. While manufacturing industries play their part in polluting air, water and soil, the chief contributors are motor vehicles. For example, 90% of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. (Meotti, 1995, p.27) With car ownership per-capita in America being one of the highest among advanced economies, there is a urgent need for alternative fuels. There is also the option of attempting to reduce car sales and car usage. But since this outcome is highly unlikely, finding substitute fuels for petroleum-based ones is the more plausible option going forward. Soybean oil is another alternative fuel that holds a lot of promise. When oil prices spiked during the first Gulf War in 1991, American farmers put to use the huge surplus of soybean oil stored in tanks across the country. They said that Soybean oil can be refined into bio-diesel, which can be used by vehicles. Already, by this time, bio-diesel was being manufactured in Europe using rapeseed oil. And by following the same procedure, Soybean oil could also be converted into bio-diesel, which would prove to be a cleaner and eco-friendly energy alternative. (Schmidt, 2007, p.87) Experts and business people have now identified bio-diesel as a key player in the alternative fuels market. It also has the advantage of being produced by both small-scale manufacturers as well as large industries. While
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Revise draft__compare and contrast - Essay Example Claudia Wallis in her article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Multitasking Generation,Ã¢â¬ (2006) and Nicholas CarrÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Is Google Making Us Stupid?Ã¢â¬ (2008) argue against the way people interact and rely upon the technology physically, emotionally, mentally, and socially in certain unpleasant ways. In his personal life Carr describes a lesser ability to concentrate. He focuses upon the intellectual laziness that access to fast internet answers, the mobile phone and other technology can breed mental laziness. He goes back into history to show how the coming of technology can have negative effects upon the human mind, from the 14th century onwards, though the industrial revolution and on into the modern age, with an ever growing negative impact. Wallis focuses instead more on the social and interpersonal communicational perspective when people are persistently interacting and multitasking with technology, and how that these can have a negative effects; both of these authors are absolutely right. She discusses how children are perpetually interacting with technology and that parents think that this multitasking is a product and a credit to the presence of that technology and their minds. Unfortunately, that is little better than an Ã¢â¬Å"old wives taleÃ¢â¬ that people may tell themselves to justify their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s excessive technological interactions:- Human beings have always had a capacity to attend to several things at once. Mothers have done it since the hunter-gatherer era--picking berries while suckling an infant, stirring the pot with one eye on the toddlerÃ¢â¬ (Wallis 2006). Many biologists and anthropologists would easily agree that the things that defines humans is their curiosity, the ability to learn and adapt, and the ability to multitask and to process multiple information at once. This did not evolve as a side effect of technological advancement. It is rather the reverse which is true: the technology emerged as a result of
Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Selfish Giant By Oscar Wilde The story, The Selfish Giant by Oscar Wilde, was introduced in the taught module, demonstrated the kind of art and drama activities that a powerful story can stimulate and engage the audience meaningfully. The scheme of work emphasised on the childrens creativity, imagination and involvement in dramatising. The plot of the story was introduced by imagining a big garden, free for all children to play and have fun in. Participants were then engaged in creating play space and activities in the garden. Ample time was given to explore the garden. The story continued with the giant coming back from a long vacation and did something drastic- the sign No Children Allowed was placed outside the garden. This was followed by a series of brainstorming on the reason for the giant to reject the children. To appease the giant, ideas of gifts and presents were suggested. Instead of receiving these gifts with gladness, the giant reacted strongly. The following will indicate two art disciplines as wel l as the responses of children as they participate in this dramatisation and art. Principles and Approaches Instead of the usual approach of storytelling, a key principle of drama is to allow children to perform (Winston and Tandy, 2009) and be part of it. Children can be engaged in different characters, in different scenarios, performing individually or collectively, in a less rigidly defined (Winston and Tandy, 2009, p. 5) space and character. Through the drama conducted in a class setting, children can explore the different parts of the garden alone or with their friends, staying in their play space or exploring others, accompanied with encouragement and positive comments from the teacher. Dramas are platforms for children to adapt and perform real life scenarios and behaviours of characters. They assimilated the children in the story to be themselves in real life, doing the things they often do and behaving as they would. Transferring fiction to real life, it reflects more securely upon issues which have significant effects upon our daily lives. (Winston and Tandy, 2009, p.3). The selfish giant depicted the adults in real life, and the children having the mindset that they are being controlled by them. The childrens good intention of bringing gifts to the giant was unappreciated. The issues raised up and behaviours observed are hardly mentioned or elaborated through storytelling. Dramatisation brings about a different dynamics for issues to surface and discussed upon. The play space for children to dramatise is the classroom. Instead of the everyday function of the classroom, it transformed into a dramatic space, representing the garden, the house, the place to prepare gifts. As Winston and Tandy, 2009, p. 4 states, through play, children learn to manipulate the core elements of drama. The rules of time, space and identity was suspended (Winston and Tandy, 2009), and drama time became elastic. The ticking of a few minutes was equivalent to a span of a few years with the mention that the giant came back after a long vacation. The other key principle is setting a common stage for all children to understand and abide by the rules. The rules can be informed explicitly or agreed upon implicitly. For the drama to succeed and driven towards achieving common purposes, both teachers and children must be clear and agree in following the rules, which are not binding nor restrictive (Winston and Tandy, 2009). The indication to end the time playing in the garden was clearly brought across when the teacher sits on the chair. This is a new approach apart from the usual clapping of hands, gathering or attention through calling out. As Winston, 2009, p. 5 clearly puts it, its success will depend upon the children knowing what is expected of them and appreciating the rewards that come from doing it well, the rewards inherent to the experience of genuine engagement in a dramatic event (Winston and Tandy, 2009, p. 5) Many children enjoy drama because it has a playful element in it. When people die, nobody actually dies; when someone feels hurt, nobody is actually hurt. Children are able to distinguish the difference between the scenes that happen in a daily routine and the conventions of play, understanding and accepting the boundaries (Winston and Tandy, 2009). For example, in a real life setting, it is rather unlikely for someone to throw or destroy gifts. However, in the dramatisation, when the giant received presents, instead of being thankful, he tore and smashed them. The children found it all amusing and know that it was not for real. Thus, drama and play comes hand in hand, it is their innate capacity for playÃ¢â¬ ¦.., the understandings they gain from participatingÃ¢â¬ ¦., that dramatic activity can be constructed. (Winston and Tandy, 2009,p. 3). Also echoed by Swanwick, 1988,p 41, play soon becomes imaginative and subjects things to the childs activity. Evaluation of results In a usual classroom setting, children are kept seated on the floor for a period of time, with little movement emphasised and usually, driving towards an academic approach. Children were all getting ready and one child was wondering aloud why the teacher was without a story book. The story began with a big garden that all children can play in. This garden belongs to the giant and it was empty. Children were encouraged to imagine one thing they would like to have in this garden and imitate the movement of it. If a child would like to have a swimming pool in the garden, he can reach forward with his arms and swim. With this, children are transferring the things they are experiencing in real life into play and drama. Many children were able to make correct guesses of their friends actions. With rules of noise level and space, children were clear of the boundaries and limitations in order to achieve a common goal. Exploration in the garden ended when the teacher sat on the chair. Every child was given the opportunity to share about their favourite activity. As the story proceeded, the children were puzzled to know that the garden was out of bounds. They were praised for their good behaviour and maintenance of the garden and equipment and none of them broke any rules. They were eager to find out what made the giant angry and the preparations of gifts were suggested. Many of them had suggestions and they were divided into groups to prepare it. They were given scrap materials to create the present they had in mind. Without any direction from the teacher, they put their ideas at work and each produced their gifts. With all enthusiasm that the giant would be pleased upon receiving, they were wrong. Such twist in the story thrilled the children as it differs from the structured and kept them in suspense about the end of the story. During the interview with the giant, the children shifted from one dimension that the teacher is the narrator to the teacher as the giant. In the interview, the giant voiced his unhappiness that children are noisy, they always cry, they do not wash their hands after using the toilet, they are liars etc.. The childrens strong objection caused a child to come forward and hit the giant. Such behaviour is inappropriate in a classroom setting and children will get disciplined for it. For the child to do that, he was fully engrossed into the story and responded appropriately. The story ended and it was toileting time. One child came out of the toilet showing the teacher that he washed his hands. This child actually remembered the reason the giant gave for not allowing any children in. He identified himself as the children in the story and the teacher as the giant. This response from the child shows that dramatisation is a form of education and should be included in the curriculum. Instead of having to remind them about the washing of their hands, a play through this story works it all well. Conclusion As much as acknowledging and understanding the benefits of having drama in the curriculum, there post a great constraint- time. For drama to take place and for it to deepen and develop further, time is usually the hindering factor. Thus, it takes pedagogist of each act. In conclusion, as Winston and Tandy, 2009, p.58 states, drama gives these stories a form and shape which can make them engaging, thought provoking and exciting for the children who are part of itÃ¢â¬ ¦.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Physical Education is undoubtedly important in the total development of the individual pupil. It is beneficial not only in the physical sense but also in the intellectual and emotional aspect of the child. In the physical sense, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical self-concept is influenced by the results and accomplishments in exercise and sports. Jarmo Liukkonin pointed out that the resulting self-concept Ã¢â¬Å"relies heavily on social comparison process, this means that the reference group and the class environment contribute to the developing self conceptÃ¢â¬ (p 137). In view of the above, this paper intends to provide an overview of the learning situation in the physical education as well as an analysis of the issues in motivational learning in physical education, particularly on how effective are the different approaches to learning and teaching. This paper will also discuss on the application of the different theories about whether or not they are useful in the classroom instruction. At the last part, is a case study of a particular student featuring particular issue on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, intellectual, and emotional growth. In general the paper will be more on analysis of the motivational and learning process in physical education involving all the different factors such as teachers, students, the different approaches used, and the relevance of the different theories in physical education. Overview Research and knowledge in Physical Education has been in rapid expansion over the last twenty years concerning the many factors that influence the learning and teaching of the Physical Education. Colin A. Hardy and Michael Mawer pointed out that this learning and teaching Ã¢â¬Å"include such issues as the context in which physical education teachers work, what teachers think about when they are teaching and planning their teaching, and the knowledge they require to teach effectivelyÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). Colin Hardy and Michael Mawers view seemed to be pragmatic yet analytical of the learning situation of the physical education. They were quite critical also of the enormous years spent on research yet it was only in recent years that the real emphasis on physical education was put on the limelight. They contend that despite of such amount of time spent on research, Hardy and Mawer contends that it is only in current years that research has begun to provide an insight into what physical education teachers feel about their role and their lives in teaching, and what pupils themselves feel about the physical education they experience in schools. In order to understand fully the importance of physical education subject, the question Ã¢â¬Ëwhy is physical activity valuedÃ¢â¬â¢ deserves an answer. Katherine T. Thomas cited the health benefit associated with physically active lifestyle as will as other physical advantages resulting from physical exercise. Thomas pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"One reason we value physical activity is the health benefit associated with physically active lifestyle. Other reasons are the developmental need to explore and master our environment, to express our selves through movement, and to feel satisfaction resulting from successful movement. Physical activity also provides an opportunity for affiliation. Being part of a groupÃ¢â¬âas a fan, a team member, or a walking partnerÃ¢â¬âmeets human needÃ¢â¬ (p. 5) Thomas thinking on this subject is certainly practical and seemingly based on actual personal experience. Her statement sounds to be a good advice for anyone whose health condition is not in the best state. Indeed, physical education truly brings a lot of physical benefit to our physical body. Other authors however emphasized the achievement of goal in order to understand the motivation and behavior of physical activity such as in sport. Robert Daniel Steadward, Elizabeth Jane Watkinson, and Garry David wheeler noted some authors such as Nichols (1984, 1989) and Harters (1978) which pointed out the goal concept theory. According to them, the concept of the achievement goal theory, refer to how people evaluate their competence. It assumes that individual are driven to demonstrate competence, and that perceptions of competence are critical determinant of motivated behavior. Analysis of the Issues in Motivational Learning in Physical Education The issue that I found interesting is Ã¢â¬Å"how effective are the different approaches to learning and teaching.Ã¢â¬ Susan Piotrowski noted that there is no single approach is going to be the most effective way to cater for progression and continuity. She pointed out that several or all of these approaches need to be used together to achieved effective progression and continuity in the transfer from primary and secondary school. Piotrowski stated that Ã¢â¬Å"what will work in any one situation depends on a number of factors, including the schools and their transfer structures and procedures, the head teachers, primary and secondary education teachers and their ability to work together collaborativelyÃ¢â¬ (p. 204). Piotrowski further stated that local conditions, facilities, expertise, and policies have a bearing on the type of curriculum that can be realistically offered in both primary and secondary in any given area. It is quite easy to accept PiotrowskiÃ¢â¬â¢s view as it draws a practical option. Regardless of how others would look at the learning process, I believe it is complicated in the sense that physical education students have different level of intelligence, different cultural orientation, and physical and emotional developments, which affects their own learning process. Thus Piotrowski wisely stated Ã¢â¬Ëthat there is no single approach is going to be effective, and that combining two or more of the various approaches may be more effective.Ã¢â¬â¢ On the other hand, Colin Hardy suggested that more pupil-centered and less direct teaching approaches would allow pupils to take a more independent and active role in decision making in physical education lessons. Ken Green and Ken Hardman, quoting Kane, (1976), Underwood (1988), and Wright (1995) identified differences in teaching approaches used in physical education; either due to the demands of different activities or different intended out comes. Green Hardman pointed out that the recommendation, which suggest that in order to achieve the range of the learning outcomes, Ã¢â¬Å"teachers should employ a variety of teaching strategies to cater for differences in pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities, attainment, needs, and agesÃ¢â¬ (p. 112). Green and Hardman also recognized that there is a need for employing variety of teaching strategies. But they noted that this is because of the demands of the different activities, or the different intended outcome. Regardless of the reason, it is clear that there is a need for teachers to employ variety of approaches in the motivational learning in physical education, to insure progressive learning process. These approaches, however, must be suited to the local conditions, expertise of the teacher, facilities, and policies, all of which have bearing on the type of curriculum. An Application of the relevant theories from each topic Theories on motivation and learning in physical education have been formulated in an attempt to extend our understanding of the teaching and learning process. Among these theories, the theory of constructivism, the theory of behaviorism, and the theory of cognitive mediation are particularly helpful in understanding the learning process in physical education. Stephen J. Silverman and Catherine D. Ennis explained that Cognitive Mediation Theory Ã¢â¬Å"recognizes the significance of reinforcement activities in the learning process.Ã This explains that what students do in classes is an important step, or mediating factor, between what teachers do and what students learnÃ¢â¬ (p. 151). According to them, what the students do in classes affect also what teachers do. Ã Basically, these activities shape teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the lesson.Ã Here is the full explanation of Silverman and Ennis regarding this theory Ã¢â¬Å"Although this modification seems so simple, it is a powerful reconceptualization of the role of the teacher. Rather than directly causing learning, as inferred in the process product paradigm, the teacher from this perspective has the job of structuring the learning environment in a way that encourages students to think and act in ways that will, in turn, enables them to learnÃ¢â¬ (p. 151) The main architect of the constructivism theory is Von Glasersfeld (1987), which views students as active agents in their learning. According to this view, students brings with them to an educational setting prior Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge and experiences from which they interpret and give meaning to their present experienceÃ¢â¬ (p. 151). Silverman and Ennis noted that in this theory, knowledge is not something transmitted from the teacher to the students but learner constructs knowledge through her or his interpretation of events from the framework of prior experience, in effect, building or constructing knowledge that has individual meaning. Ã Ã To apply this theory, teacher must relate the lesson on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ sphere of experience and allow students to explore the given knowledge utilizing their own experience.Ã As a result, students will gain meaningful experience out of the new knowledge learned in the classroom. On the other hand, adherents of behavioral theory emphasized that the study of learning focused on the memorization of simple and rote elements and on the behavior of the learner. Silverman and Ennis pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"This view of learning focuses on the learner as a rather passive responder to externally imposed factorsÃ¢â¬ (p. 134). Ã Silverman and Ennis stated that this theoretical lens views students as recipients and accumulators of knowledge, able to learn by listening to lectures, by reading or by rote drill and practice of isolated decontextualized skills. This particular theory is very significant in most studies wherein students have to gain basic understanding of theories of studies before finding the general concept; such as in the case of nursing in which fundamental issues such as anatomy and health ethics must be memorized well before finding its relevance to the field of work. Learning all these theories provide ample understanding as to how students could learns best the subject of physical education. It means that teachers must employ the use of these theories in their teaching strategies in order to ensure efficient learning process.Ã Physical Education as a subject is not that interesting for many students; and in that case, teachers must make every learning situation a worthwhile experience.Ã Hence, applying these theories can help learning enjoyable and fruitful. In the cognitive theory, students learn through the activities. It means, the physical activities in the physical education provide the pupils learning opportunity. In many cases, this subject is most of the time seventy-percent activities with thirty-percent lectures.Ã Students are expected to learn from physical exercise of the techniques with occasional coaching from the instructors.Ã They learn from trying and from their mistakes. Using Constructivism Theory, students learn by utilizing their own interest and socialization in the learning process.Ã By relating physical exercises in their own experience will result to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptability of the learning situation, which may result to higher learning of the subject. Behavioral Theory could be applicable in terms of learning the theories of the subject.Ã Here, students are expected to memorize different terminologies and techniques of the subject as well as history and rules of the game. Below is a case study of a student in high school who has an obvious intelligence yet performing just above average student. Case Study of a Student Rick is a high school with obvious sophisticated intelligence but performs merely just above average student in most of his academic subjects in school.Ã Although, he excelled in Mathematics, but his ratings in his physical education class has been poor because he is not participating in all the physical education activities class.Ã He has a lung problem that is why he does not participate in his physical education class. According to the theory of cognitive mediation, reinforcement activities in school such as physical activities in the physical education class, shape the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ lesson and the student understanding. The theory of cognitive mediation implies that student learning can be cause by these activities too. In the case of Rick, although he has obviously sophisticated intelligence, yet his academic performance reflects merely that of above average student. Ricks problem is that because of his inactive physical condition, his learning potential is not fully consummated. Learning coming from his experience of the physical exercise is lacking. The theory of constructivism also teaches that Ã¢â¬Ëexperience provides learning aside from the class room instructions. The theory of constructivism emphasized that Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge is not something transmitted from the teacher but learner constructs their knowledge through their experience. RickÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge has been only a result of spoon-feed learning. He could have excelled in all his subjects had he tried himself to be involve in the physical activities in his physical education class. On the other hand, Rick can be a good model in the behavioral theory of learning as the behavioral theory emphasized that students are passive responder of the externally imposed factors. In general, the theories of learning have been great help in the learning process. Work Cited Capel, S. & Piotrowski, S (eds). 2000. Issues in Physical Education.Ã London: Routledge. Green, K. & Hardman, K. 2005. Physical Education: Essential Issues. London: Sage Publications Company Hardy, C.& Mawer, M. 1999. Learning and Teaching in Physical Education. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd. Liukkonen, J. 2007. Ã Psychology for Physical Educators: Students Focus, 2nd Edition. USA: Human Kinetics. Silverman, S. & Ennis, C. 2003. Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction. USA: Human Kinetics. Steadworth, R.,Watkinson, E. & Wheiler, 2003. G. Adapted Physical Activity. Canada: University of Alberta Press. Thomas, K.Ã 2003. Physical Education Methods for Elementary Teachers 2nd Edition. USA: Human Kinesics. Ã Ã
Friday, January 10, 2020
Leadership is a necessary component of any organization to include a criminal justice organization. In recent years, research has clearly indicated that leadership must be present in criminal justice organizations for a multitude of reasons. Leaders provide motivation and inspire their followers to progress while advancing toward a shared vision. This paper will discuss several different aspects of leadership and expand on the importance of having strong leaders in place. This paper will explain that there are different styles and theories of leadership which are utilized today. Basic principles of leadership as well as the role of a leader will be discussed in detail along with explanations as to why leadership is crucial in criminal justice organizations. Leadership in Criminal Justice Leadership in any organization is directly related to the overall success that organization can expect to see. Leadership in criminal justice is certainly no exception. Having strong leaders in place promotes organization, management, productivity, motivation and creativity in a criminal justice setting. Moral, productivity, and the overall success of a criminal justice agency are a few of the things commonly affected by lack of leadership. This paper will explain the importance of leadership in a criminal justice organization by responding to the following questions: 1. What is leadership? 2. What are leadership theories and styles? 3. How does leadership differ from management? 4. Why is leadership important in criminal justice? What is leadership? Leadership can be defined as a process that helps direct and mobilize people and their ideas (Stojkovic, Klofas & Kalinich, 2012). Leadership requires that a person have a strong desire to be an influential part of the organization and want to play a key role in moving towards a common goal. Leaders are primarily concerned with motivating and inspiring their followers to remain productive and to maintain the drive and ability to reach organization goals. A leader must a have an organizational vision and be able to inspire and motivate others to buy into that vision and work towards achieving the goals related to that vision. The role of a leader in a criminal justice organization should not be under appreciated. A leader plays has an immensely influential role within the organization. First, leaders must have a strong working knowledge in the assignment they wish to lead. This can be developed through education, training, and experience. Leaders must have the respect of those they wish to lead in order to be effective. One way that leaders can earn that respect is by possessing the skills needed to be in a leadership position. Secondly, a leader must know themselves, their strengths, and their weaknesses. Many leaders in law enforcement find it easy to know their business, but find it difficult to know themselves (Dobbs & Field, 1993). Leaders must realize their strengths and weakness in order to develop their own style of leadership. Leaders who act outside their natural style of leadership can cause themselves to appear awkward and ultimately affect their ability to lead. Third, a criminal justice leader must know their subordinates. Due to the fact that people are motivated my different things, a leader must realize what motivates each subordinate individually. Also, a leader must have a personal relationship with the subordinate as well. For example, a leader must know his employee well enough to congratulate or give condolences in personal matters when appropriate. This will remind the subordinate that the leader cares about their personal achievements and struggles as well. Finally, a leader must operate with consistency and lead by example. For example, a criminal justice leader who punishes a subordinate for poor report writing when they themselves write poor reports will create a lack of respect for that leader. This is due to the fact that the leader does not lead by example. A leader must exemplify the ideals they demand in order for their follows to truly want to follow their lead. What are some of the theories and styles of leadership? There are many theories about different aspects of leadership and the effectiveness of each in a criminal justice setting. Contemporary research brings into focus the behavioral approach and the contingency approach. The behavioral approach emphasizes the behavior of leaders while the contingency approach emphasizes situational variables that affect leadership. We find in the behavioral approach an emphasis on how leaders interact with their subordinates as well as how a leader creates processes that encourage subordinates to be productive and accomplish the goals of the agency. The behavioral approach is concerned with whether or not the subordinates feel that their leader makes them feel like a valued member of the agency and if their opinions carry any weight in the day to day operation of the agency. The contingency approach, founded in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s differs from the behavioral approach. Ã¢â¬Å"Examining various situational variables is central to understanding leadership in organizations, according to the contingency theoristÃ¢â¬ (Stojkovic, Klofas & Kalinich, 2012). FiedlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Contingency Model is one of those contingency theories. In FiedlerÃ¢â¬â¢s model we find that how well liked or disliked by subordinates a leader is, will have a direct impact on how effective that leader will be. For example, a detective supervisor who is not well liked might have a hard time finding volunteers to work overtime at their request. In contrast, a well like supervisor might have no problem getting volunteers in the same situation. The subordinates in this example might base their decision on nothing more than who is asking. Also in FiedlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Model, we find that uncertain task structures can be problematic to leadership. For example, if officers are instructed by their supervisor to go out and make some arrests and not given any further details on the assignment, they are left not understanding the true goal of the assignment. In this example, a leader would gain better results from an assignment if their subordinates knew the true purpose of the assignment and were aware that there would be measurable results. Ã¢â¬Å"It is easier to lead when the task structure is clearly defined and open to direct monitoring by a supervisor (Stojkovic, Klofas & Kalinich, 2012). There are many different styles of leadership that one can utilize in an organization. The three that are the most commonly applied to the criminal justice profession include: the autocratic, democratic, and the laissez-faire styles of leadership. It is important for a leader to stick with a style that best fits their personality, but at times and depending on the circumstances facing them at any given time, they might switch back and forth from on style to another. The style of leadership one elects to utilize largely depends on what that leader wishes to accomplish (Lynch, 1998). The autocratic leader is authoritarian in nature. An autocratic leader would rather give orders and make all the decisions while gathering little or no input from others. Many times this does not provide the best of environments for subordinates to grow confident in making their own decisions. Autocratic have a tendency personalize criticism and are often times viewed as harsh or rigid. Autocratic leaders work well in times of crisis where an authoritarian is needed to quickly gain compliance and organize resources (Aleno, Griffith, Weaver & Wright, 2008). An example of this would be in an officer involved shooting situation. When an officer is injured in the line of duty, emotions run high which often creates a chaotic situation that is difficult to control or manage. Autocratic leaders are most likely to be able to handle a situation such as this due to the fact they are quick to give orders and begin making the decisions that need to be made without much hesitation. Autocratic leaders in a criminal justice setting often work best with subordinates who are young and have little experience. The democratic leader is one that welcomes input from their subordinates under the right circumstances. Democratic leaders encourage their subordinates to participate in the decision making process which promotes teamwork and personal growth. Democratic leaders often times delegate duties to subordinates which further builds their confidence in decision making. Democratic leaders many times can struggle during times of emergency due to the fact they might take additional time to make decisions due to bringing others into the decision making process. The third leadership style, laissie-faire, is a style in which the leader will allow the subordinates to make the majority of the decisions on their own with little input or interference from the leader. This type of leadership can be effective in situations where subordinates perform properly without excessive direct supervision. An example of where a laissie-faire style of leadership could be utilized would be a unit comprised of self motivated veterans who require very little supervision. This style has few truly positive aspects and the agency could actually be placed in jeopardy due to this hands off approach to leadership. The laissez-faire style may not be leadership style at all; instead, it may be an abdication of administrative duties (Peak, 2004). How does leadership differ from management? Any criminal justice organization would benefit from having both managers and leaders among their ranks. There are managers who are not capable of true leadership and leaders who are not accomplished managers. In contrast, there are some who have the unique ability to perform well as both a manager and a leader. There are marked similarities and differences that make management and leadership roles important to a criminal justice agency. Management can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the fluid and dynamic component of administrationÃ¢â¬ and as Ã¢â¬Å"a process of working with people in a humane way to achieve organizational goals and objectives as efficiently and effectively as possible (Aleno, Griffith, Weaver & Wright, 2008). Managers concentrate much of their efforts on planning, organizing, directing, implementing, and evaluating. Criminal Justice mangers are known for prioritizing important aspects of an agency and ensuring that things such as resources and proper planning are in place. Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership means directing or the ability to obtain the Ã¢â¬Å"followershipÃ¢â¬ of othersÃ¢â¬ (Aleno, Griffith, Weaver & Wright, 2008). Leadership can take on many forms and can be seen at all levels of a criminal justice agency. Leaders motivate and inspire their followers or subordinates to work towards a shared vision. Leaders envision the future and attempt to gain a followership among their subordinates which changes their way of thinking for the better of the agency and themselves. Leadership and management are similar in some ways while being completely different in others. Both management and leadership ultimately are working towards positive outcomes for an agency as a whole. Leaders and managers both have a common responsibility to work toward a more productive and efficient organization. While leadership and management accomplish this differently, both positions have an impact on the people within the organization. Ã¢â¬Å"Leaders and managers differ in what they attend to and how they thinkÃ¢â¬ (Aleno, Griffith, Weaver & Wright, 2008). Managers concern themselves more with managing resources, planning, and directing in an effort to meet the goals of the agency. These tasks deal more in structuring behaviors and processes with less emphasis on what motivates personnel to be productive. By contrast, leaders are more concerned with motivating, praising, or inspiring. These ideas are more likely to have a positive impact on the minds and attitudes of the people within an organization to continue working towards a shared vision. Although there are similarities and differences in management and leadership, a criminal justice agency should contain both. Due to the fact that there are very positive characteristics of both managers and leaders, a criminal justice agency needs a combination of the two in order to maximize its potential. It is debatable as to whether one is more important that the other. Ideally, a manager would strive to develop leadership skills while a leader would strive to develop managerial skills. Why is leadership important in Criminal Justice? Leadership is an important part of a criminal justice organization for same reasons leadership is important to any organization. Leaders are responsible for keeping an organization focused on moving forward and progressing towards a better more improved organization. Leaders must be innovative and continue looking for new and better ways of doing business while encouraging their followers to share that positive mindset. Leadership is absolutely crucial in criminal justice for numerous reasons to include motivation and promoting ethical behavior. In a criminal justice organization, staying motivated can be a challenging at times for many reasons. With the inherent stressors and pressures of working in the criminal justice field, one can find themselves lacking the motivation needed to remain successful. It is the responsibility of leadership to recognize this type of mindset and deal with it appropriately. Leaders should strive to keep their subordinates motivated using creativity and making necessary changes that produced positive results. A criminal justice leader must know their subordinates and understand that each person is motivated differently. Promoting ethical behavior is another important aspect and responsibility of leadership in criminal justice. Unethical behaviors are present in any organization and a criminal justice agency is certainly no exception. In criminal justice especially, one can on a daily basis find themselves in an ethical dilemma. Ethical behavior must start at the top of a criminal justice agency and be seen and reinforced with regularity. Leadership can prevent a large number of unethical behaviors by simply being involved, engaged, and by holding their subordinates accountable. Leaders of a criminal justice organization must lead by example and have integrity. Those in a criminal justice leadership role who themselves choose to engage in unethical behaviors do an enormous disservice to the organization and to individual members. Ã¢â¬Å"The organizational climate which is directly influenced by the leadership of the agency determines how much unethical behavior will be present in a criminal justice agency or, for that matter, any organizationÃ¢â¬ (Wright, 1999). There is absolutely no substitute for leadership within a criminal justice organization. It is absolutely vital for criminal justice organizations to not only ensure that there are strong leaders in the right positions within the organization, but to also invest in their people to ensure that quality leaders are being bred for the future. A criminal justice agency that does not invest in there people from a leadership stand point, are certainly doing themselves and the organization a disservice. Research has made it abundantly clear that the quality and quantity of leadership a criminal justice organization possesses will have a direct impact on the productivity, morale, and overall success that organization will experience. References Aleno, L. , Griffith, S. , Weaver, K. , & Wright, S. Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission. (2008). Middle management (Version 2008. 8). Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Dobbs, C. , & Field, M. (1993). Leaders vs. managers: The law enforcement formula. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 62(8), 22-25. Lynch, R. (1998). The police manager. (5th ed. ). Cincinnati, OH: anderson publishing co. Peak, K. J. (2004). Justice administration police, courts, and corrections management. (4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Stojkovic, S. , Klofas, J. , & Kalinich, D. (2012). Criminal justice organizations, administration and management. (5th ed. ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co. Wright, K. N. (1999). Leadership is the key to ethical practice in criminal justice agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics, 18(No. 2), Retrieved from http://www. questia. com/library/1G1-60060343/leadership-is-the-key-to-ethical-practice-in-criminal